Presuming Competence By Design • A Tutorial for Systems, Environment, Curricular, and Materials Design in Learning Systems




Universal Design for Learning

Adaptive Environments, (2006). History of universal design.  Accessed July 17, 2007.


Bergstahler, S. (2001). Universal design of instruction. Retrieved Dec. 16, 2002, from


Burgstahler, S. (in press). Preparing faculty to make their courses accessible to all students. Journal on Excellence in College Teaching.


CAST - R&D plan includes literacy, online learning, assessment, textbook design, accessibility, classroom practice, and education policy -


Chang, B.V., Tremblay, K.R., and Dunbar, B.H. (2000). An experimental approach to teaching universal design. Education, 121(1), 153-158.


CITEd Research Center - review of research on application of universal design to multimedia materials -


Fletcher, V. (2002). Universal design, human-centered design for the 21st century. Adaptive Environments Center, Inc.


Mace, R., Hardie, G. & Plaice, K. (1991).  Accessible environments: Towards universal design. pp.155-76 in Design Interventions Towards a More Humane Architecture, edited by WE Preiser, JC Visher and E.T. White, New York: Van Nostrant Reinhold.


Orkwis, R., & McLane, K. (1998). A Curriculum Every Student Can Use: Design Principles For Student Access. Reston, VA: Council for Exceptional Children. Retrieved November 5, 2002 from:


Osborne, H. (2001). “In Other Words…Communication across a life span…universal design in print and web-based communication. On Call (January). Retrieved December, 2002, from the World Wide Web:


Vogel, S., Leyser, Y., Burgstahler, S., Sliger, S., & Zecker, S. (2006). Faculty knowledge and practices regarding students with disabilities. Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 18(2), 109-123.


Welch, P. (1995). Strategies for Teaching Universal Design. Adaptive Environments Center and MIG Communications.


Multimodal Representations

Atkinson, R. C. & Shiffrin, R. M. (1971). The control of short-term memory. Scientific American, 225(2), 82-90.


Baddeley, A. D. (1986). Working memory. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.


Baddeley, A. D. (1992). Working memory. Science, 255, 556-559.


Baddeley, A. D. (1999). Human memory. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.


Chandler, P. & Sweller, J. (1991). Cognitive load theory and the format of instruction. Cognition and Instruction, 8, 293-332.


Clark, R. C., & Lyons, C. (In press). Graphics for learning: Evidence-based guidelines for planning, designing, and evaluating visuals in training materials. Jossey-Bass.


Clark, J. M. & Paivio, A. (1991). Dual coding theory and education. Educational Psychology Review, 3, 149-210.


Cowan, N. (1988). Evolving conceptions of memory storage, selective attention, and their mutual constraints within the human information-processing system. Psychological Bulletin, 104(2), 163-191.


Kalyuga, S., Chandler, P., & Sweller, P. (1998). Levels of expertise and instructional design. Human
Factors, 40
, 1-17.


Lohr, L. (2003). Creating visuals for learning and performance: Lessons in visual literacy. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.


Mayer, R. E. (2001). Multimedia learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Mayer, R. E. (1999). Multimedia aids to problem solving transfer. International Journal of Educational Research, 31, 611-623.


Mayer, R. E. & Anderson, R. B. (1991). Animations need narrations: An experimental test of a dual coding hypothesis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 83, 484-490.


Mayer, R. E., Steinhoff, K., Bower, G., & Mars, R. (1995). A generative theory of textbook design: Using annotated illustrations to foster meaningful learning of science text. Educational Technology Research and Development, 43, 31-43.


Moore, D. M., Burton, J. K., and Myers, R. J. (1996). Multiple-channel communication: The theoretical and research foundations of multimedia. In D. H. Jonassen, (Ed.), Handbook of research for educational communications and technology. New York: Simon & Schuster Macmillan.


Moreno, R. & Mayer, R. E. (1999). Cognitive principles of multimedia learning: The role of modality and contiguity. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91, 358-368.


Paivio, A. (1986). Mental representations: A dual coding approach. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.


Rieber, L. (2005). Multimedia learning in games, simulations, and micro worlds. In R. E. Mayer (Ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning (pp. 549-567). New York: Cambridge University Press.


Learning Goals and Objectives

Kaufman, R. (2000). Mega Planning: Practical Tools for Organizational Success. Thousand Oaks, CA. Sage Publications.


Mager, R. F. (1997).  Preparing Instructional Objectives: A Critical Tool in the Development of Effective Instruction. (3rd ed.). Atlanta: Center for Effective Performance.


Oakley-Browne, H. (2007? In press?). Write Smarter Objectives: How to Create High Impact Results. Oakley-Browne Associates, Ltd.


Barriers to Performance / Systems Design

Kaufman, R. (2000). Mega Planning: Practical Tools for Organizational Success. Thousand Oaks, CA. Sage Publications.


Rummler, G. A. (2004). Serious Performance Consulting: According to Rummler. Silver Spring, MD: International Society for Performance Improvement and the American Society for Training and Development.


Stolovitch, H., & Keeps, E. (Eds.). (1999). Handbook of human performance technology (2nd ed.). San Francisco : Jossey-Bass.


Villachica, S & Stone, D. (1999). Performance support systems. In Stolovich, H. and E. Keeps, Eds. Eds. Handbook for Human Performance Technology: Improving Individual and Organizational Performance Worldwide . pp.442-463. International Society for Performance Improvement: San Francisco .